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In 1905, a young man named Hans Wilsdorf founded his own watch company in London, Britain. In that year, he was only 24 years old, and later his small company developed to the famous Rolex watch company. In 1926, Oyster case was launched, it was invented by Erret and Perregaux, and its inspiration was derived from deep-sea oyster. This structure had screwed bezel, screwed case back and screwed crown, which sealed the movement up entirely, so that it had ideal waterproof performance. It has become the cultural core of Rolex in the future. In 1927, a woman named Mercedes Gleitzes swam across the English Channel while wearing a Rolex Oyster watch, and the watch attracted worldwide attention. This was the first amazing advertisement of Rolex: the real waterproof watch that had been tested, and people began to pay attention to this young watch brand. In the 1940s and 50s, people gradually paid attention to seabed minerals. People invested lots of manpower, material resources and financial resources to the exploration and development of marine mineral resources, especially the exploration and development of oil, natural gas and manganese which became popular over the world. In 1950, a new model of Rolex attracted people's attention. In addition to the characteristics of Rolex, it was installed a rotating bezel named TRN-O-GRAPH. Moreover, its bezel has one hour scales. From its appearance, we can know that it had the significant features as modern Sub: black dial, black rotating bezel, round hour markers and Benz hand, but its diameter was not large which was only 34.5mm, and it was equipped with the bubble back movement A260 which was popular at that time. Its possessed waterproof to 50 meters, and it had cross mark on the crown. This watch is the earliest predecessor of sub-mariner. The first and second generation of Sub In 1953, Rolex company decided to produce a professional diving series: Submariner, and it was design department's idea to produce it at that time. The main designer is Jacques Cousteau, he had once serviced in navy, and he extremely loves diving and had dived into the deep sea, so he attached great importance the reliable timepieces. Thus Submariner must meet the requirements as follows: (1)Good readability under the sea, large black dial and large luminous hand. (2)Good anti-magnetism, waterproof performance and anti-collision structure. (3)Good corrosion resistance and great temperature difference resistance. As the first generation of Sub. The difference between 6204(1953-1956) and 6202 is that 6204(1953-1956) was waterproof to 100 meters, and it did not adopted the classical Benz hand, but the simple pointed hand, moreover, the end of its second-hand was a circular luminous dot for the purpose of being recognized easily. Ref.6204 In 1954, Ref. 6205(1954-1956) was produced. Unlike 6204, the dial of 6205 was printed with SUBMARINER, and afterwards, its dial was also printed with 100M=330FT, which means the waterproof depth, and it was still equipped with A260 movement. Ref. 6200(1954-1957) is a special model of Sub, unlike the common Sub, it has 3-6-9 numeral hour markers, and it adopted A296 movement. Otherwise, there is no common minute scales between 1 and 10 markers on the bezel. Ref.6205 Start with Ref. 6538(1956-1964), Sub began to launch its second generation of products. This generation of products also had typical Benz hand of Sub, and the overall diameter of watch was increased to 38mm, and they were equipped with the best C.O.S.C. Cal.1030 butterfly rotor movement at that time, which has better winding efficiency. And the mark of "+" was changed to BREVET. More important, its waterproofness was raised to 200 meters, which was a new record of waterproof depth. REF. 6536(1956-1964) was cheaper than 6538. Although it was also equipped with Cal. 1030 movement, it was not C.O.S.C.. Interestingly, it still had waterproof to 100 meters among coetaneous products. It had diameter of 37mm, and its crown was marked with cross. Ref.6538 Comments In 1953, explorers Auguste and Jean Piccard dived into the sea of 3,150 meters and set a new world record of submarines, moreover, they are parent-child relationship. Rolex Submariner became popular in the watch industry, because this watch dived to 600 meters along with the submarine, and it is no doubt the second experimental success of Rolex after the crossing of English Channel in 1927. On October 21, 1954, CBS broadcast black-and-white television movie Casino Royale(Barry Nelson had played in this movie), and it is said that it was the first appearance of 007 intelligencer on the screen, and he wore the Rolex Submariner. It was the best advertisement for the subsequent launch of Sub. And then in the first film of 007 intelligencer Do. No, Sean Connery still wore Submariner, but it is said that Rolex was reluctant to give a Submariner to Sean Connery, so director Albert Broccoli gave his own Submariner which was installed NATO strap to him. Owing to this story, there are also some watch fans specially replaced their original metal bracelet with NATO strap. The third and fourth generation of Sub The third generation of Sub is Ref. 5508(1958-1954), which was equipped with Cal.1530. It has diameter of 37mm and was waterproof to 100m. And its SUBMARINER on the dial also has the version in red. Otherwise, SWISS at 6 o'clock position was changed to T<25. The subsequent EF.5510(1958-1960) was only produced for two years for its change of luminescent materials and reinforcement of radioactivity. Unlike 5508, its waterproof was raised to 200 meters. Ref.5508 Ref.5510 The subsequent REF.5512(1959-1977) is an epoch-making product. Since then, Sub began its fourth generation of products, and this generation of products have many difference from the former products: (1)The material of bezel replaced compounded rubber with steel. (2)The frictional flute of bezel was obviously widened and enlarged. (3)Due to an submarine accident happened in the late 1950s, and crown of Sub was broken, 5512 was specially equipped with crown guards, and this feature has been still used all along. (4)The crown tube was installed a rubber waterproof gasket. (5)Three dots were engraved below the crown logo as the mark of sports model. (6)The bracelet was modified obviously. (7)Its diameter is 39.5mm. Otherwise, 5512 adopted C.O.S.C. Cal. 1570 movement, which was the most advanced product of Rolex at that time, and it has good reputation of precision and durability. Ref.5512 REF.5513(1964-1985) had been produced in large quantity for many years. It was equipped with 1530 movement in the early days, several years later, it selected the famous 1520 movement. REF.5517 is the military version of 5513, and it is very expensive. It has sword hand and canvas military strap. In the long course of the production of 5513, ISO made a detailed requirements as the specifications of diver's watch, and details are as follows(July 1, 1981): (1)Identification: in the darkness, wearer could still clearly recognize the time that has been set and running condition of the watch from a distance of 25 centimeters. (2)Anti-magnetism: it must possess the antimagnetic capacity of more than 60 Gauss DC. (3)Impact-resistance: it could fall from a height of one meter to the hard wood without being damaged. (4)Resistance to external forces of accessories: it could pass the test of 20-kilogram external forces of accessories. (5)Salt water resistance: under the 23 degree Celsius, the watch must could be kept in the 3% salt water for more than 24 hours, the case and accessories shall not be changed, and movable parts must work normally. (6)Heat-impact: the watch must be able to withstand the rapid changeable temperature period like 40 degrees -5 degrees -40 degrees. (7)Waterproof and underwater compression: 100-meter waterproof specification stipulates that the watch must be able to withstand the pressure which is equivalent to the pressure of 125 meters in water for an hour, as well as the pressure which is equivalent to the pressure of 300 meters for an hour. (8)Setting device: one-minute and five-minute markers of bezel must be seen clearly. (9)Flexibility: the watch could be handle in a variety of actions under the water of 30cm. (10)Reliability: the watch could be tested under the water with 12.5 atmospheric pressure for 20 minutes. (11)With regard to the diver's watch with helium escape valve, wearer must pay attention to the damage of chronograph. The timepiece that could meet the above requirements is official diver's watch, but there is seldom watch like Submariner that is suitable for professional divers to use. Ref.5513 Ref. 1680 is the earliest model put into use, in other words, it is the first generation of Sub-Date. It was produced from 1965 to 1980, and it adopted the famous C.O.S.C. Cal. 1570 movement and had water resistance of 200 meters, moreover, it was equipped with plastic glass and cyclops eye, and its overall size is 39.5*14mm. There is a special version of 1680, it is the famous "Red Sub", and its name is derived from SUBMARINER in red, and this version is very popular around the world. Ref.1680 The later Ref. 16800(1979-1989) adopted sapphire crystal, and its waterproofness was raised to 300 meters from 200 meters, its size is 40*13.5. It was equipped with famous 3035 movement that has frequency of 28800, thus it is more exact and stable. Ref.16800 Comments The production of Submariner conformed to the trend of ocean development and exploration, and they met the requirements of progress of the times with excellent functions. Although they do not have gorgeous appearance and many functions as Daytona, Submariner has high practical value. (1)The advertisement in 1973: cultural anthropologist took the Reed ship Helios 2 and traveled for 57 days and nights, finally, he conquered the Atlantic. During the voyage, he relied on Submariner. Furthermore, world's navies adopted the Submariner. (2)The advertisement based on the theme of Japanese harbor village plan: in order to develop the ocean, Japan Marine Science and Technology Center took the lead in doing massive undersea living experiments called harbor village plan from 1972 to 1975, and divers wore Submariner diver's watch when they worked in the sea. (3)The advertisement is about diver Luis Marden who discovered the HMS Bounty which sank in 1790, and it is published all over the world: there is a place called Pitcairn islands in the south of 1300 miles from Tahiti in Oceania, and Luis Marden discovered the sunken HMS Bounty in this place and he loves Rolex watches very much. (4)The advertisement is about marine archaeologists and it is published worldwide: he worn the Rolex watch when he searched the sunken Spanish and British galleons of 15th century to 17th century in the sea. There advertisements showed that Submariner is an essential diving equipment for divers when they have their marine operations. The fifth generation of Sub In 1989, 5513 was stopped production and replaced by the new Sub Ref. 14060, which is the modern Sub edition. Unlike 5513, it was equipped with sapphire crystal which could prevent scratches caused by sports. Furthermore, its waterproof reached a new depth of 300 meters, and its movement caliber is 3000. The sign of luminous radiation always was T<25, and the sign at 6 o'clock position was SWISS during 1996 to 1999, and it was changed to SWISSMADE from 1999 until now. In 2001, new movement Cal. 3130 of Rolex was launched, and it replaced the simple 3000, and Sub was restyled to Ref. 14060M(2001-now). Ref.14060 Ref.14060M Ref. 16610 is the latest Sub-Date. It has waterproof to 300 meters and sapphire crystal. But it is equipped with the newest 3135 movement of Rolex, and its size is 40*13mm. Before 2000, its sign was SWISS T<25, and it was changed to SWISS MADE after 2000. 2003 is the fiftieth anniversary of the launch of Sub, and Rolex launched 16610 LV(green bezel) as the commemorative version of Sub. The success of Sub will forever be engraved on the milestone of Rolex. Ref.16610 Ref.16610LV SEADWELLER is the famous derivative product of sub-mariner. Its name was derived from an submarine experiment made by diliyasitehao in 1960. Its biggest feature is that it is installed helium escape valve on the case, which could prevent blast caused by late release of helium from the case when divers surface from the sea. In fact, the first batch of SEADWELLER was not called SEADWELLER, but SUB---REF.5514 COMEX. It was produced by COMEX and ROLEX jointly in 1968, COMEX was a French company specialized in professional underwater operations. This watch was equipped with helium escape valve and Cal. 1520 movement, its size is 39.5*14.5, and its case back was engraved with ROLEX and COMEX, as well as the three-digital caliber. Because it was not released commercially, it was only produced in small quantity, but its price is very high. REF.1665 is the really first diver's watch, it was produced from 1971 and it had been stopped production in 1980. It has waterproof to 610 meters and thickness of 39.5*16.5 mm. It adopted the Cal. 1570 movement, and it has date display, but it did not have the cyclops eye. It is available in simple version and COMEX version, as well as the famous red SUBMARINER version, and the caliber on the case back of COMEX version became four-digital. Ref.1665 The later Ref. 16660 was equipped with Cal. 3035 movement and sapphire crystal, its has waterproof to 1220 meters and helium escape valve, its size is 39.5*15 mm. Ref.16660 The latest Ref.16600(1911-today) is equipped with Cal.3105 C.O.S.C. Movement, and its overall size is 39.5*15 mm. Ref.16600