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How is the hairspring made

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Hairspring is a strategic movement part, and even in Switzerland, there are few companies that can produce gossamer because it is a complex, labor-intensive, mysterious process. Few manufacturers will open the door to show how they work.
       Although the diameter of only 1 cm, but it is the heart of the movement of the movement of the watch. Industry consensus, Christian Huygens in 1675 invented the first with a balance wheel (Balance Wheel) and gossamer movement. Since then, the successor Xiao Cao Cao with the watch speed mechanism changes are very small. Escapement to promote the balance wheel, on the contrary, by the balance wheel constraints. Balance wheel vibration adjustment time flow: the balance wheel every swing once, the gear forward a certain distance. Its role, similar to the role of clock pendulum. Slim coiled hairspring, to ensure that the balance wheel to a constant frequency of swing back and forth.

production process

       The traditional gossamer is made of iron-nickel alloy, such as Nivarox, whose elasticity is hardly affected by temperature. Nivarox is an acronym for Nicht Variabel Oxydfest, which is similar to the Invar alloy (FeNi36%) invented by the Swedish Nobel laureate Charles Eduude Guillaume.
       If you want to manufacture gossamer, first of all with high-tech industrial precision and manual operations, with ultra-precision metal lamination technology to produce forging of metal. It takes several days to turn the wire into fine thread by continuous steps. Tolerances are usually less than 0.1 micron (100 nanometers), because subtle changes in hairline profile will have an impact on watch performance. This technique is well known that the difference lies in the trade secrets that satisfy the necessary precision.

       The manufacturing process of gossamer involves multiple quality procedures, quality control, cleaning and heat treatment, and so on. The following only lists the main production steps:

       Everything starts with an iron-nickel alloy line with a diameter of 0.6 mm, and the alloy wire is precisely stretched to 60-70 microns (0.06-0.07 mm) depending on the desired gossamer. And then through a number of diamond mold (20 consecutive times), gradually narrow its diameter to reach the final width. Want to pull out more than 1 km alloy line, about two weeks time, especially the longer the alloy line, each time the longer drawing time.

Tips: After stretching the hairspring diameter difference of 0.3 microns, the role of the movement, the rate of change up to 300 seconds per day.

       At this stage, the alloy line is round, and then it needs to be rolled into a rectangular strip. The alloy line is flattened by a precision roll and the results are measured by laser. If any discrepancies are detected, the machine can self-correct. This is one of the most delicate steps in the production process, and the accuracy is critical because the 0.1 micron difference will cause the movement to change at a rate of 200/300 seconds per day.
       The alloy line is then cut into regular sections, which are slightly longer than the expected length of the final gossamer to allow for adjustment, which may be the simplest step in the production process.
Winding / heat treatment
       Before heat treatment, it needs to be wound into a spiral (usually four) to ensure that they maintain shape and enhance their mechanical properties.
The oven used for heat treatment after winding
       They are shaken by shaking the box. This is a very traditional and simple process, but still the most effective way, compared to the execution of all other operations. According to the specifications of each gossamer, use the cutting tool (internal cut) to adjust the internal dimensions.

Classification / pairing
       Check the balance wheel and gossamer, and test its performance, so that classification (balance wheel by inertia, gossamer by strength) and then pair. If necessary, you can use the laser guide tool, the balance of the balance wheel balance.

       Laser welding - Fix the gossamer on the balance wheel pivot. Then check the length of the hairspring and, if necessary, cut (external cut).

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